(2014) In J. Cesari, The Oxford Handbook of European Islam. Oxford: UK.
This chapter provides a review of the contemporary literature on Islamophobia in Europe, through the lens of immigration issues, socio-economic status, and civic participation of Muslim-origin immigrants and their descendants. In addition to the literature review of the current state of knowledge and debate about Islamophobia, it also seeks to address the most recent data, survey findings, and public discourses available about the current state of Islamophobia in the European context. Describing Islamophobia as a form of governmentality in the Foucaultian sense, it is argued that Islamophobia operates as a form of cultural racism in Europe, which has become apparent together with the process of securitizing and stigmatizing migration and migrants in the age of neo-liberalism.